American History · biography · history

The Astor Family and the Titanic Tragedy

This month recognizes the 110th anniversary of the Titanic disaster. It was a terrible tragedy, but the legacy provided better maritime safety measures that still assist us today. It is interesting to read stories from the survivors (most of the accounts were stories from women) and how their lives were impacted due to this disaster. Last month, I wrote about Mrs. Caroline Astor who was the pillar of Gilded Age society in New York City. I recently found out that her son was actually aboard the Titanic and, sadly, did perish during the sinking.

Her son was Colonel John Jacob Astor IV and he was the wealthiest passenger aboard the Titanic. Though his mother’s reign was now over, the Astors were still very popular with the press and the scandal sheets. Colonel Astor and his new wife, the eighteen year old Madeleine Force, were traveling home from their honeymoon in Egypt and Paris. They boarded with Mr. Astor’s valet, Victor Robbins, Mrs. Astor’s maid, Rosalie Bidois, Mrs. Astor’s nurse, Caroline Endres, and their pet dog named Kitty. Kitty was bonded to John Astor and they had been through a lot together, including his difficult divorce.

Colonel Astor was born in 1864. He was the youngest child of William Blackhouse Astor II and Caroline Astor. He was the couple’s only son. He attended Harvard then came back to New York to manage the family investments. Most of these investments included real estate. Colonel Astor was the founder of the Astoria Hotel in 1897 (dubbed the “world’s most luxurious hotel”). This would eventually become the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel after it merged with his cousins (and rivals) hotel next door. He received his military title during the Spanish-American War. He volunteered to raise and equip a battery. He became a Military Inspector with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He saw action in Cuba. He also volunteered his own yacht, Nourmahal, to be at the disposal of the US government.

In 1894, he even wrote his own science fiction novel. This was titled A Journey in Other Worlds. In this novel he wrote about life in the year 2000. He wrote about space travel to the planets Jupiter and Saturn, he wrote about a worldwide telephone network, solar power, and the advances of air travel. It seems Astor had a variety of interests and a creative imagination.

John Jacob Astor IV

In 1891, he married Ava Willing , a socialite from Philadelphia. They had a son and a daughter together. In 1909, after Mrs. Caroline Astor had passed away, Ava sued for divorce from Colonel Astor. Their marriage had not been the best and it was not anything close to a love match. Their son, Vincent, was old enough that he stayed with his father before going on to Harvard University, but Ava received custody of their younger daughter. In 1910, they went their separate ways, but it was a huge scandal in the tabloids. This is part of the reason why it was such a shock that only 2 years later he was engaged to eighteen year old Madeleine Force. Astor was an extremely wealthy man, but a divorce did leave a scar upon his reputation. Additionally, even back in the early 1900s, the 29 year age gap between the couple was quite shocking. Young Madeleine was closer in age to his own son.

Madeleine Talmage Force was born in Brooklyn in 1893. Her father was a business man and owned a successful shipping company. She was educated and had traveled extensively in Europe. She was already very popular when she became a debutant and was properly introduced to society life. She was fond of yachting and, during the courtship with Colonel Astor, had traveled on many yachting trips with him.

Madeleine Force

Due to the scandal of their relationship, they did have a hard time finding a priest who would be willing to perform their ceremony. They eventually found a minister who was willing and the two were married in 1911 at the Astor Newport mansion. The minister himself received a lot of backlash which caused him to resign his position. The press ate up this scandal and put pressure on the new couple. It was difficult to get away from the paparazzi treatment they received. They went on an extended honeymoon to Egypt and Paris as a chance to escape.

The new Mrs. Astor was five months pregnant when she boarded the Titanic for their return journey home. The couple stayed in first class suite C-62-64.

On the night of April 14th, the Titanic was struck by an iceberg. Many of the passengers did not take the orders very seriously when they were told to go above and put on their life vests. After a quick investigation, Colonel Astor returned to the suite to tell his wife that he did not believe the damage was serious. Together, with their servants, the Astors waited in the gymnasium. They watched the boats being loaded for a while, but Colonel Astor did not seem to be very worried. He thought they would be more safe upon the “solid decks” of the ship than in the unstable lifeboats. But, by 1:45 am, he had a change of heart and realized the serious nature of what was happening.

Colonel Astor assisted his wife and her maid into lifeboat 4. This was the last lifeboat to be loaded that night. He attempted to join his wife in the lifeboat. He stated that she was in a “delicate condition” and he wanted to be there and support her. He was sternly reminded that only women and children were boarding at this time. He respected this and returned to the deck of the ship. He gave his wife a parting kiss.

There are reports that Colonel Astor began to help other women board lifeboat four. Mrs. Hippach and her daughter reported that the Colonel ordered the lifeboat to stop lowering and escorted the two women to the lower deck so they could climb through a porthole and into the lifeboat. They state that the Colonel saved their lives.

His valet brought his loyal dog, Kitty, to the deck so they could stand together until the last moment. Those who mentioned seeing Colonel Astor said he appeared to be calm despite the panic around him. The sea would end up claiming their lives that night.

Colonel Astor, Madeleine, and Kitty

Meanwhile, Mrs. Madeleine Astor looked on and watched the horror of the magnificent ship sinking into the depths of the ocean. They had just managed to be lowered into the water before the sinking sped up. A panicked man had jumped off the ship and into their already unstable boat. They pleaded with him to assist them in the rowing, but he was too terrified to move. The women, including Mrs. Astor, had to take up oars themselves and row rapidly away. They just narrowly missed being pulled into the suction caused by the sinking of the great vessel. Due to the rough sea water, their boat began to fill with water. Many women were frozen in fear and were unable to provide assistance, yet Mrs. Astor proved to be one of the brave ones.

Mrs. Astor assisted in the bailing out of the water. She even helped with rowing as they returned later to the site of the sinking in order to look for any who were left alive. They found six crew members who were dragged by the women onto the lifeboat. Two ended up perishing before the rescue. They did not find any sign of Colonel Astor. The atmosphere had become eerily quiet after the overwhelming screams and panic just some time before.

They floated there among the wreckage and in the frozen temperatures until they were rescued by the Carpathia. Mrs. Astor had shown great strength and courage throughout her time in the lifeboats, but after she was brought aboard the rescue ship she fell into a nervous breakdown.

This was a very traumatic event for the young Mrs. Astor to experience. She had no idea if her husband (who she had only been married to for a short while) was alive and how they would find each other in New York. She had just watched all that death and destruction in front of her. She was also carrying a child and was facing the possibility of being a widowed mother once she returned to New York.

When the Carpathia docked back in New York on April 18, Madeleine Astor was reported as being “hysterical…on the point of collapse.” She was assisted by her sister, Katherine Force. She was experiencing shock and grief, but now she was thrust once again in front of the public eye as the media had come in droves to see the widowed Titanic bride. She was brought to her parents home to recover.

Colonel Astor’s body was recovered on April 22. He was identified due to the initials monogramed on his clothing, J.J.A. This was the end to any of the hopes that Mrs. Astor or her step son may have had of his survival.

On August 14, 1912, Madeleine Astor gave birth to her son who she named John Jacob Astor VI. He would be known as one of the “Titanic Baby”. The child was left a large estate by his father. This must have been such a joyous, but also sad moment for the young Mrs. Astor.

Madeleine Astor was also left an annual income from a $5,000,000 trust her husband had set up, but this would be forfeit upon her remarriage. She raised her son as part of the Astor family for the next four years. She kept to herself mostly and did not make many appearances in society. Around 1914, she would begin to slowly appear more at events and in public.

John Jacob Astor VI, “Titanic Baby”

In 1916, she would remarry. She married her childhood friend, William Karl Dick, in Bar Harbor, Maine. This was the summer home of the Force family. They had two children together, but would divorce in 1933.

Four months later, she would remarry for a second time to the Italian actor and boxer, Enzo Fiermonte. The marriage did not go well and she would file for divorce in 1938. She charged him with extreme cruelty. She would not marry again.

The former Mrs. Astor would pass away in Palm Beach, Florida in 1940. She died at the age of 47 (ironically, the same age that her first husband perished on the Titanic). The official cause was heart disease.

This is the story of Colonel John Jacob Astor IV and his wife, Madeline Force Astor, and the impact that the Titanic had upon their lives. Many survivors of this disaster were left with PTSD and survivors guilt for years after the event. This story was of an interest to me because of the connection to the famous Caroline Astor and the Gilded Age, but, as I read more, I was struck by the bravery of Madeleine throughout the events of that night. She showed strength and courage. She went out of her way to help others. Colonel Astor did as well, even though he knew he was doomed the moment he was told to step out of the life boat.

There are many other survivor stories to be told. I received most of my information from Encyclopedia Titanica which had a great deal of information on many passengers on the vessel. There are contemporary articles there as well which provide a primary source insight to the events. I read though quite a few of those as well to piece together this story.


American History · biography · history

The “Shining” Women and the Battle for Workers Health Rights: Part 2

Part 1:

Ottawa, Illinois is a small town in the rural Midwest that is about 85 miles southwest from Chicago. In 1922, to the excitement of many of the residents, a small ad ran in the local paper which stated that young women were needed for fine brushwork. It advertised “ideal location and surroundings. Unusually clean and attractive work”. The ad was placed by a new company that had just set up their new factory in Ottawa, Radium Dial. The president was a man by the name of Joseph A Kelly. They already had loyal employees such as Lottie Murray and Mr. and Mrs. Reed who became household names in the area. Many young women began to apply in great numbers (just as we saw in NJ), as the pay was just too good to pass up.

Continue reading “The “Shining” Women and the Battle for Workers Health Rights: Part 2″
American History · biography · history

The “Shining” Women and the Battle for Workers Health Rights: Part 1

In 1917, a new factory opened in New Jersey. It advertised that it was hiring young women of the local community. For a working-class woman, this was a great opportunity. The pay was above average and it was a skilled job where a young woman could gain experience. The advertised job was a dial painter. They would paint the faces of luminous watches (the numbers and hands of the clock). The paint that was used caused the watch face to glow in the dark. This was extremely useful for those in military service at this time. It was a very technical job as the watch faces were small and a fine pointed brush would have to be used. Women’s hands were smaller, so they were coveted for this detailed job. The girls were a paid commission per dial completed. Some of the top performers were able to make three times what their own fathers made. It seemed like a dream come true to many women which attributed to the high demand for employment at the company. Girls would quickly start to recommend family and friends to join them at the factory.

One of the most exciting things about this new job was that one worked closely with Radium. At this time, radium was the wonder drug and one of the most valuable substances on Earth. The media hailed this as the “miracle pill”. It was effective in cancer treatments and was sold in pharmacies in a pill form to cure just about anything. It was even included in toothpastes and cosmetics. The girls would become known as “ghost girls”. The dust from the radium would coat their clothes, hair, skin, etc. and give them an ethereal glow. The women would purposely wear their nice clothing to work at the factory so they would glow as they went out dancing later that night. Everyone was jealous of the girls who worked at the radium factory.

Continue reading “The “Shining” Women and the Battle for Workers Health Rights: Part 1″
American History · biography · history

The Riders of the Orphan Train ( 1854-1929)

I took a bit of a hiatus from the blog as it has been difficult to find the motivation to research and write. It has been a bit of a struggle to find topics I am passionate with especially with the worries of the past year. I recently took a trip to New York City and I found a bit of that passion once again. I visited Ellis Island and it was a great museum where I learned quite a bit. One small information blurb at the museum really caught my attention. From 1854-1929 the Orphan Trains delivered about 200,000 children to different homes in the American West. I thought this was incredible and I quickly wanted to learn more.

Continue reading “The Riders of the Orphan Train ( 1854-1929)”
American History · english history · history

When Christmas was Banned…

The holidays this year have been a struggle. Many did not even expect the holidays would have been affected when the pandemic started in March . Gatherings will be smaller or over video chats and the holidays will not feel like the big event that they have usually been. Yet, it also gives us sometime time to focus on the things we are grateful for. Christmas could never truly be cancelled, right?

Well, actually, Christmas has been banned in previous centuries. It was banned in both the United Kingdom and early America. In 1647, Parliament decreed that Christmas was no longer considered a feast day or a holiday. This was under the rule of Parliament/Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, who was placed in power as a result of the English Civil War and the beheading of Charles I. This regicide brought the Puritans (some of the most extreme Protestants) to the forefront of politics. Puritans believed that the whole celebration and overindulgence of the season was wrong. To them, there was nothing in the bible that stated there should be a celebration like this on December 25. In fact, the date December 25 originates from a pagan festival (the date of the winter solstice) which was just adapted to the Christian rhetoric during the early medieval era. The bible was the word for the Puritans and they had a strict adherence to it. Christmas should be like any ordinary day. There would be no large feastings, merry making, rowdy behavior, drinking to excess, decorations (idols), or any other “sinful” activities. They also disliked these traditions as they felt that the Catholic influence was still too strong on the Church of England.

Continue reading “When Christmas was Banned…”
American History · art history · history

Fashion Statement: The Bloomer and its Impact on the Women’s Movement

While doing research for my series on the suffragist movement in the United States, I came across a very interesting trend that was briefly popular during the mid-19th century. Elizabeth Smith Miller debuted the “Bloomer” costume in 1851 . Miller was working in her garden and became irritated when her long and heavy skirts got in the way of her work. As she was now thoroughly fed up, she decided to take a pair of scissors and cut the skirt to a shorter version. Underneath the skirt, she would wear a wide pair of trousers which allowed her more comfort and freedom to complete her tasks. This outfit soon became a hit among the early feminists in the budding suffragist/women’s right movement. This new fashion trend pushed the boundaries of the feminine norms of society (despite being short lived) and it is easy to see why it became popular with suffragists. The Bloomer walked so future fashion trends of the 20th century could run. I really have never looked deeply into fashion history before, but it is fascinating how through this mode of art/expression women were able to convey what they wanted and resisted against societal norms.

Continue reading “Fashion Statement: The Bloomer and its Impact on the Women’s Movement”
American History · biography · history

Timeline of Women’s Suffrage : 1848-1920. Part 1

Last week, we celebrated the 100th anniversary of women’s suffrage in America. It is an amazing milestone to hit and to honor, but, on the other hand, it is shocking to think that the female citizens of this country have only had the right to vote for one hundred years. There are so many stories, people, and events that went into the long fight for the 19th Amendment, but in these next two posts I have compiled the events and stories that I feel were most important and encapsulated the movement.

Seneca Falls Convention, July 1848

 The Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 sparked the women’s suffrage movement in America. The event was organized by five women: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Mary M’Clintock, Martha Coffin Wright, and Jane Hunt. It took place in the small town of Seneca Falls, New York. This convention was an early introductions, worldwide, of the concept of women’s suffrage. But how did this convention suddenly come about?

The abolition of slavery was one of the first political movements that women participated in and were able to exercise political agency. Beginning in the 1830s, American women were speaking out against slavery in public lectures. A woman’s role, during this period, was to be stowed away in the “private sphere”. They were to be dutiful wives and take care of the children.  Being regulated to the household, women never had a chance to reach out further and participate in the public sphere. They were barred from taking an active role in politics. To society, their opinions were unimportant. After a woman married (which was expected of them) they would lose any few freedoms they had and were dependent on their husbands. Married women had virtually no property or financial rights and the option of divorce was near impossible. The ideal “True Womanhood” of the period was a wife/mother who was pious and submissive. By the eyes of the law, women were dependents rather than a true citizen.   

Continue reading “Timeline of Women’s Suffrage : 1848-1920. Part 1”
American History · biography · history

Arrested for Voting: Susan B. Anthony’s Fight for Suffrage

August 2020 marks 100 years since the 19th Amendment was passed. This amendment provided women with the right to vote in the United States. It is hard to believe that it was not until 1920 that the female citizens of America received a right that should have been automatic as a citizen of the country. This right is often taken for granted today and it can be difficult to imagine a time when a woman would actually be arrested for voting in an election! It is important to remember this anniversary and to remember how hard the women who came before us fought. They fought so we could participate in government and in the decision making of this country. It is critical that we exercise this right every opportunity we have. During August (and likely the months beyond), I would like to highlight some of the tactics the suffragettes used to have their voice heard, famous standouts, and highlight how much hard work was put into the movement.

Continue reading “Arrested for Voting: Susan B. Anthony’s Fight for Suffrage”

American History · biography · history

Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera: Activists

This month I wanted to write an article about two figures who made such an impact, yet have been forgotten through time. Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera were icons of the LGBT and transgender movement during the 1960s and 1970s.

Forsaken transgender pioneers recognized 50 years after Stonewall

In the mid-20th century, it was still difficult for homosexuals to be open in the world. It was even more difficult for transgender individuals. Those in the LGBT community were ostracized from society. Society still did not want to acknowledge their existence. Most employers excluded and denied opportunities for those of the community. Some were sent to mental institutions to go through shock therapy to “cure” any “unnatural” thoughts. Many had no where to go and were unable to obtain employment. They ended up on the streets after running away or being abandoned by their own families.

This is the world that Marsha P. Johnson entered after graduating high school with $15 dollars to her name. She immediately left her home in New Jersey to move to New York City in 1963. In her hometown, Johnson was not accepted as a transgender female. She experienced harassment by males and in a 1992 interview she stated that she was a victim of sexual assault. She moved to Greenwich Village in 1966 and found a community of people who accepted her. She became a part of the transgender community and participated in drag.

Continue reading “Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera: Activists”

American History · biography · Detroit/Michigan · history

The Italian Hall Disaster and the Copper Strike of 1913

In this post I want to bring attention to the Christmas Eve Italian Hall Disaster. This event is a forgotten piece of history to those outside of the local area. This story takes place in the early 1900s during a time where big corporations were booming and there were essentially no restrictions on how an employer could choose to treat their work force. It begins with local workers who became fed up with the way they were being treated and realized that they should be worth more to their employers. With great sacrifice to many union families, a strike begins. Unfortunately, it will end in a Christmas tragedy, but there will be a legacy that these families left behind. It should not be forgotten.

Continue reading “The Italian Hall Disaster and the Copper Strike of 1913”