biography · english history · european history · history

The Strength of Queen Katherine

In this post, I wanted to focus on Queen Katherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England. With all the focus on Anne Boleyn, Katherine is typically remembered for her struggles later in life. She is remembered as the old, unattractive, stubborn woman who was being replaced by her young and vivacious lady in waiting. In reality, Katherine of Aragon was an extremely strong woman, a very popular queen and a role model for many of her subjects. She was intelligent and educated. She was also loyal to a fault. She was born of Queen Isabella (who was the queen of Castile in her own right) and King Ferdinand. She was trained for queenship since she was a toddler and prepared entirely for her role as a leader. She was integral to the success at the Battle of Flodden. It is easy to see why she remained popular with England’s subjects even after the King had decided to put her aside.

Queen Isabella was ruler in her own right of the Kingdom of Castile (located in today’s modern Spain). Katherine’s mother was a good example of a powerful Christian ruler during the 15th/16th centuries. With her marriage to King Ferdinand of Aragon, Spain was united for the first time. The co-rulers were focused on boosting the power of Spain and they wanted to become the Catholic powerhouse in Europe. A lot of their reign was dedicated to the campaign of conquering more land and booting the “heretic” Moors (the Muslim population living in Spain) out of the kingdom. In modern eyes, this looks terrible as they viewed those of other religious faiths/backgrounds as inferior and intruders, but this is what they felt their duty was as good Christian subjects. Katherine grew up in this environment of war and strong Catholic values. Queen Isabella also ensured that all her children were well educated. This is out of care, but also likely to help the image of Spain and win advantageous marriages.

September 8, 1505 – Catherine of Aragon Writes to Her Father - Janet Wertman
Young Katherine of Aragon

Katherine’s marriage to Prince Arthur of England was arranged when they were both children. Henry VII was feeling insecure on the throne (remember, the Tudor dynasty was actually very new and Henry VII had taken the throne by force from Richard III and the former Plantagenet dynasty just some years earlier). If they could make an alliance with the strong and established Spanish kingdom, then this could boost their legitimacy. To Spain, they would be gaining an ally against France (the other Catholic powerhouse in Europe). Katherine of Aragon was said to be very beautiful. She had red-gold hair, fair skin, and exhibited a grace that was looked for in queens. She was raised always knowing she had a destiny to be Queen of England and she knew one day she would leave Spain (likely to not return).

Katherine and Arthur married as teenagers (Arthur was 15 and Katherine was 16) , but Arthur died within a year. Both Katherine and Arthur caught the same deadly sickness, but Katherine was the only survivor. The young widow was left stranded in a strange land with her destiny unclear. The alliance that was forged with their marriage also seemed almost dead in the water unless something could be done to mend it. Katherine likely expected to be sent back home, where her parents would be able to find a new husband for their young daughter. Yet, in England, Katherine had a bit more freedom. Those in the Spanish court were raised with a strict etiquette code, but rules were a bit more relaxed in England and the clothing more relaxed as well. Katherine, when she was queen, would have power in this society. Did she really want to leave and have to go back to her childhood home?

Negotiations started between Katherine’s family and Henry VII about possibly marrying his second son, Prince Henry (who was now the heir). Henry VIII in his younger years was fit, handsome, athletic, and charming (contrary to his later years, where injuries had left him almost immobile and a possible head injury may have affected his personality). He loved to hunt and excelled in tournaments. He would become extremely popular. There was a big question though, was Katherine’s marriage with Arthur consummated? This could cause issues with the legality of a new marriage with her former brother in law. If she did, then the pope would likely not approve the new marriage. Katherine was haunted by this question her whole life (especially when Henry VIII had tired of her), but she continued to claim that their marriage was never consummated. Even on her death bed, she still held firm. She was likely telling the truth as she was a god fearing woman and would likely not lie just before her death.

Prince Henry and Katherine already had created a bond. Henry looked up to Katherine in a way and, as he grew up, it seems Katherine fell in love herself. Henry turned to her for comfort and advice. When Katherine’s mother died though (during the negotiations), Spain was no longer united which gave Henry VII pause. Katherine was left in a limbo for years. During this time, she was treated extremely harshly by her former father in law. He cut her allowance during these “negotiations” which left her in a very difficult situation. She no longer had money for food, for new clothing, or to pay her ladies who came with her from Spain. She led a difficult life during this time and had to go into debt in order just to feed herself/her household and obtain the basic necessities. Even her father ignored her letters. She was left on an island while the men debated the fate of her life. She could not even go and experience freedom at the English court, instead she was basically a prisoner. Yet, she persevered through this knowing that she still had a destiny. She was born to be a leader. She wrote frankly to her father about her situation. She worked hard to try to get the necessities that she and her household needed. It was not just about her. In 1507, her father actually appointed Katherine as his ambassador to England. She was the first female ambassador in European history! Her father through their correspondence believed in his intelligent daughter to act in his stead. Finally, her position in the English court was raised and she would not get pushed around by Henry VII’s continued attempts at manipulating her. Through this experience, she gained more knowledge of the ways of politics and showed her strength as a leader. It is easy to see why young Prince Henry greatly respected her early in their relationship.

As she continued to wait for a decision on her fate, she continued to be treated harshly. This lead to fighting within her household, money troubles, depression, and bouts of sickness. It was not until Henry VII’s deathbed that he gave permission for Katherine and Henry VIII to finally be free to wed.

A very young Henry VIII, shortly after his coronation

There was a five year age gap between the two. Katherine was 23 years old (old for an unmarried woman in 16th century standards) and Henry was 18. The new King and Queen seemed to be bringing the onset of a golden age. A new Camelot was awakened for the populace. Both of their rulers were very young and beautiful, they seemed very much in love, and the court was always active in showing off their wealth with dazzling pageants, parties, etc. Queen Katherine took a great interest in education and was an avid reader of the Scriptures and philosophy. She would help to financially support universities. She worked hard to learn English (which had been difficult for her at first) and was very pious. She went to mass daily which was a source of strength for her. She was the model Queen of the era.

Early on, Katherine of Aragon was very involved in matters of state and would often give advice to the King. Henry VIII would insist that Katherine be involved and he needed her opinion on matters first before decision was made. Naturally, Katherine used this power to bolster the Spanish interests (basically an anti-France policy). Henry VIII wanted her approval on his actions which shows his admiration of her. In 1513, Henry VIII took his army on campaign to France and leaves Queen Katherine as regent in his stead. There have been some examples of Queens taking the regency while their husbands were away, but not many. This really showed the trust that Henry VIII had in his wife.

Within a month of Katherine’s regency, James IV of Scotland declared war and invaded England. The Scots saw their chance with an absent King and army. This was her chance to really show her leadership. Katherine took a very active role in the preparations to defend her adopted nation. It seems from some of the letters that Katherine enjoyed and relished the challenge she was faced with. The Queen, with her councilors, mobilized troops to form a defense force, she contacted local governments to determine how many men and horses would be provided, and provided strict deadlines. Their country was being invaded and there was no time to waste. She took control of the financial aspect. She (likely with the help of councilors) calculated and provided the proper funding for supplies, artillery, etc. This may not seem so shocking to the modern eye, but at the time this was very unusual for a woman to be so involved in the male dominated arena. Yet, Katherine had the example of her mother who took great part in the wars in Spain. Did she think of her mother at this time and use her example for her own leadership?

Queen Katherine did not just do the bare minimum in this case either. She even left the safety of London and rode north behind her troops. She brought with her over 1500 sets of armor. She kept the spirits of her men high and gave a rousing speech to the reserve army. She likely reminded them that they were to defend their nation and that the English strength and courage was superior to all. Though the reserve army never did have to actually fight. The main force quickly defeated the Scots at the Battle of Flodden. King James IV himself was killed in action. This was a great victory for England and for Queen Katherine who was the acting regent. She sent a piece of the James IV’s bloody surcoat to her husband in France (she actually wanted to send James IV’s head, but that was not possible). She wrote proudly to King Henry regarding the English victory. Katherine was born into a world where she grew up seeing women heavily involved in battles, so this was finally her chance to take up where her mother left off. Despite being a “model” type Queen of the era, Katherine was not meek or a coward. She was strong and would not accept defeat. Even later in life, when she faces one of the most difficult battles of her life, she would not go down without a fight. Katherine was already popular with the people before this, but her success as regent likely cemented it even more.

The Spanish Princess': Why the Story of Catherine of Aragon at Flodden  Matters | Telly Visions
Interpretation of the Battle of Flodden by Starz’s series, The Spanish Princess. Quite a few liberties were taken with regards to historical accuracy, but her passion and spirit are illustrated here.

Katherine of Aragon biggest failure ( in the eyes of the contemporary court ) was her “inability” to give birth to a son. In 1511, Katherine did give birth to a son, Prince Henry, who died just days later. She would go on to have (estimated) about 6+ pregnancies in a very short amount of time. Only one living child resulted, the Princess Mary. This took a huge toll on Katherine physically and mentally. She proved to be a very devoted mother to Princess Mary and one can only imagine how painful it must have been to lose more potential children.

Mary Tudor - Death, Facts & Husband - Biography
Young Princess Mary

Even worse, it also caused the King’s displeasure. This caused Katherine great stress that induced sickness. She turned to religion more and more during this time, even fasting to the extreme (which likely did not help with her pregnancies either). To our modern eyes sometimes it is difficult to understand Henry’s obsession with having a son. Yet, as stated earlier, it is easy to forget that the Tudor dynasty was still very new. His own father had just conquered and taken the throne from the previous dynasty (who still had supporters out there). A son was crucial to secure this dynasty his father began. Henry began to turn to his advisor Cardinal Wolsey more and more. Katherine’s father also betrayed England and Henry began to look more towards a French alliance. All of these matters combined marked the end of Katherines up close involvement in government. Despite these setbacks, Katherine still maintained the decorum of the Queen, she was always loyal and kept her head held high.

Catherine of Aragon - Wikipedia
Later Queen Katherine

By the time Anne Boleyn came around, the Queen had aged rapidly. The stress of her daily life and the multiple pregnancies took a toll on her looks. She stood in great contrast to the young King just hitting the prime of his life. Yet, Katherine continuously held the popular favor with the people. Anne Boleyn was never really liked by the people of England. This is evident in her own coronation where the onlookers looked on in complete and eerie silence or when she was attacked by a mob of angry women. Queen Katherine looked and behaved how the ideal medieval monarch should be. She was respected and she was a role model. Despite being bullied and threatened to abdicate her position, go into a nunnery, or “tell the truth” of her wedding night, she always maintained that she was Henry’s true wife and the true Queen of England. She was born for this and no one was going to take this away from her. To her, Anne Boleyn was nothing. Even when Henry “annulled” his marriage and broke from the Catholic Church of Rome she would not accept it. As a result, she was treated terribly and was banished to homes with minimal staff. She was barred (even at her deathbed) from seeing her only daughter, Mary. That had to have been so upsetting and so depressing that likely any person would have just stepped down. Yet, even on her deathbed (she likely died of cancer) she still declared she was Henry’s true wife and the true queen. She did always believe that Henry would come back to her. Despite the abuse she faced from him and the poverty she was subjected to yet again, she always showed the utmost respect to the King.

Through the Tudor obsession in the media, Katherine is always looked at as the dowdy old woman who was set aside. Yet, she was actually much different than that. She had an inner strength, determination, and leadership skills that made her stand out as Queen.

Sources:

Weir, Alison. Six Wives of Henry VIII

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/when-catherine-aragon-led-englands-armies-victory-over-scotland-180975982/

https://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol1/pp997-1012

https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Flodden

https://www.historyextra.com/period/tudor/battle-flodden-battlefield-scotland-scottish-invasion-guide-facts-dates/

https://heroinecentral.wordpress.com/tag/battle-of-flodden-field/

American History · english history · history

When Christmas was Banned…

The holidays this year have been a struggle. Many did not even expect the holidays would have been affected when the pandemic started in March . Gatherings will be smaller or over video chats and the holidays will not feel like the big event that they have usually been. Yet, it also gives us sometime time to focus on the things we are grateful for. Christmas could never truly be cancelled, right?

Well, actually, Christmas has been banned in previous centuries. It was banned in both the United Kingdom and early America. In 1647, Parliament decreed that Christmas was no longer considered a feast day or a holiday. This was under the rule of Parliament/Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, who was placed in power as a result of the English Civil War and the beheading of Charles I. This regicide brought the Puritans (some of the most extreme Protestants) to the forefront of politics. Puritans believed that the whole celebration and overindulgence of the season was wrong. To them, there was nothing in the bible that stated there should be a celebration like this on December 25. In fact, the date December 25 originates from a pagan festival (the date of the winter solstice) which was just adapted to the Christian rhetoric during the early medieval era. The bible was the word for the Puritans and they had a strict adherence to it. Christmas should be like any ordinary day. There would be no large feastings, merry making, rowdy behavior, drinking to excess, decorations (idols), or any other “sinful” activities. They also disliked these traditions as they felt that the Catholic influence was still too strong on the Church of England.

Oliver Cromwell | eHISTORY
Oliver Cromwell

Shops/taverns/inns were forced to stay open on Christmas day, it was illegal to attend a specific Christmas service, singing carols was forbidden and Christmas food/decorations were seized if they were found. Actual soldiers were sent to break up these large gatherings and these services. Parliament even met that day and continued on as usual. Prior to this ban, Christmas was celebrated similarly to how it was today. People had the day off, families would travel and get together, presents were given, and decorations were made. It was also a time for leisure for the working class and it was an opportunity to overindulge in foods, alcohol, romance, etc. Some of these celebrations when on for 12 more days after Christmas. Yet, as the Puritan faith began to become more popular, this was looked upon as sinful, disgraceful, and very similar to Catholicism (which was a stigma they had been working so hard to remove ). It was not until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 with Charles II that Christmas was “unbanned”.

Medieval Festive Facts: How Was Christmas Celebrated In The Past? -  HistoryExtra
Christmas Celebrations

I had heard about the banning of Christmas in England before I started my research, yet I did not know it was also banned in early America (New England to be specific). Puritans had also settled in the colonies in order to achieve the religious freedom that they desired. In 1659, the government of the Massachusetts Bay colony banned Christmas. Again, they felt the celebration of Christmas was a distraction from the true word of God and that it was sinful. This feeling was so strong that it really was not until the 1840s that Christmas, as a holiday, was universally accepted in New England. People who were caught taking the day off were sent back to work and those found participating in such activities were fined. The fine was even larger for those found gambling.

Yet, laws were made to be broken. As you might imagine, many were not happy with the new rules in either country. In England, Pro-Christmas riots began to occur. The most famous occurred in Canterbury where crowds of people began to damage the shops that had opened on Christmas day which then snowballed into them taking control of the entire city. This actually led to a larger rebellion against the new government (under Cromwell) in 1648. In 1647, there was a riot on Christmas day which led to a protestor getting killed. He became a symbol that Parliament had “killed” Christmas itself.

In New England, many people were attempting to celebrate under the radar, which is why fines were imposed for these activities. I also read about a particular group, the Boston Anticks, who would go around each Christmas and perform bawdy shows (especially in wealthy homes) for money. This group was apparently very annoying and very disruptive, yet were hard to identify because they were disguised. It was obvious they would perform these dramatic scenes on the “banned” Christmas day for more attention and, likely, profit.

When Massachusetts Banned Christmas - HISTORY

Yet, these bans actually helped to form the Christmas we know today and actually made the event more popular. With inns, bars, and taverns forced to stay open, the holiday actual became more social. Additionally, after the bans, the celebration of Christmas became more mixed with the religious and the secular. Charity became very important (especially in the Victorian era). Christmas became a time to give to the less fortunate. Those who did not have a family to spend time with or a feast to partake in.

Worth Reviving - Scrooge | The Movie Guys
Scrooge, Albert Finney , 1970

This Christmas will be difficult, but it is a time to be thankful for those in your life. I think this year we have learned that we take a lot for granted in our daily lives. We will just have to be creative and find different ways to celebrate , just like those who were affected by these Christmas bans.

Thank you again all for supporting my blog. I cannot wait to continue writing into the new year!

Sources:

https://www.historyextra.com/period/stuart/no-christmas-under-cromwell-the-puritan-assault-on-christmas-during-the-1640s-and-1650s/

http://www.olivercromwell.org/faqs4.htm

Christmas in Early New England, 1620-1820: Puritanism, Popular Culture, and the Printed Word by STEPHEN W. NISSENBAUM, 1996

https://www.historytoday.com/archive/christmas-19th-century-america

https://www.history.com/news/when-massachusetts-banned-christmas

New England Living Today, ” How the Puritans Banned Christmas,” by Heather Tourgee • December 19, 2019 

https://thehistoryofparliament.wordpress.com/2013/12/22/parliament-and-christmas-during-the-civil-war/

biography · english history · history

Aethelflaed: The Heroine of Mercia

Aethelflaed has received a revival of interest with the popularity of the show The Last Kingdom and other media. She is a fascinating character, but, in this post, I wanted to answer two questions. Who was the actual Aethelflaed and why is she so important to English history? I believe she is an important female figure who is often overshadowed by others during the Anglo-Saxon period. In the year 911, Aethelflaed, known as the Lady of the Mercians, took over the command of the kingdom of Mercia after her husband’s death. She was not just a regent until the next male heir came of age but was viewed as the head of government by her own people. She is known as an effective military commander, diplomat, and a benevolent ruler. By the end of Aethelflaed’s reign, she contributed much to the eventual consolidation of Saxon England.

Continue reading “Aethelflaed: The Heroine of Mercia”
english history · european history · history

A Christmas to Remember: The Truce of 1914

Image result for all together now statue
“All Together Now” by Artist Andrew Edwards.

Christmas Eve, 1914

“It must have been sad do you say? Well I am not sorry to have spent it there and the recollection of it will ever be one of imperishable beauty. At midnight a baritone stood up and in a rich resonant voice sang, Minuit Chretiens. The cannonade ceased and when the hymn finished applause broke out from our side and from the German trenches! The Germans were celebrating Christmas too and we could hear them singing two hundred yards from us. Now I am going to tell you something which you will think incredible but I give you my word that it is true. At dawn the Germans displayed a placard over the trenches on which was written Happy Christmas then, leaving their trenches, unarmed they advanced towards us singing and shouting “comrades!”. No one fired. We also had left our trenches and separated from each other only by the half frozen Yser, we exchanged presents. They gave us cigars and we threw them some chocolate. Thus almost fraternizing we passed the morning. Unlikely indeed, but true. I saw it but thought I was dreaming.” -Letter from a Belgian soldier printed in The Times, 1915

World War I began in July of 1914 with the expectation on both sides that it would be a quick victory. Over the course of 51 months the war would bring a devastating death toll of 15 to 19 million soldiers and civilians. This tragic event would practically destroy a whole generation and cause much pain to the families that had to endure. It is easy to remember the death and destruction this war brought, but it is also just as important to remember the positive points. There were moments that showed there was still hope, kindness, and generosity despite differences. In the spirit of Christmas, I wanted to dive into the unusual occasion of the Christmas Eve truce in 1914. This was truly brought on by the common soldier and the truce itself was unofficial and spontaneous. The men found that despite the death, destruction and bad feelings that had surrounded them since the summer; they could take the opportunity to still share a common experience with their enemy. It seems unbelievable to us now (and definitely to the soldiers then) that Christmas Carols were sung with their enemies. These were the same enemies that had fired shoots at them the day before. This is the story and experience of the Christmas Truce 1914.

Continue reading “A Christmas to Remember: The Truce of 1914”

biography · english history · european history · history

Add to Your Reading List: A Testament of Youth

I suppose it is better to have had such splendid friends as those three were rather than not to have had any particular friends at all, but yet, now that all are gone, it seems that whatever was of value in life has tumbled down like a house of cards.”

-Letter from Edward to Brittain in response to the death of their friend, Victor

Image result for testament of youth real
Edward Brittain, Roland Leighton, Victor Richardson

I have spent August reading a memoir from World War I, which really kept me thinking for days after. I believe this is a very important memoir and one most people should take the time to read. It is one of the few accounts from the era that is from a female point of view. Many accounts of World War I are from the men in the trenches, but what about the women they left behind? In Testament of Youth, Vera Brittain writes of her life during this era and a bit afterwards. Brittain was born in 1893 and had grown up in northern England. She had one brother named Edward and the siblings were very intelligent and talented. Brittain was very interested in furthering her education and in writing, while Edward was a musician. The two were part of a lost generation and much of the memoir focuses on how their generation was affected by a war of that scale. She discusses how the generations that came before or after could never really comprehend what they went through. They were on their own island.

Continue reading “Add to Your Reading List: A Testament of Youth”

art history · biography · english history · history

Portrait Analysis: Lord Horatio Nelson

Lord Horatio Nelson is still viewed as one of the greats in British history and, as a result, his portraits throughout time reflect an almost divine man. It is natural that he would be depicted as the hero that the public wanted to see. He is tall with perfect skin and is decked out in his prim and proper military uniform. Though many of the portraits do portray his missing arm, Nelson actually physical showed his battle experiences and was even blind in one eye. But why would this be portrayed in a portrait? It does not follow the narrative that is meant to be presented.

Image result for lord nelson portrait

Yet, a new portrait has been uncovered which may show more of the real Nelson. It was painted by Leonardo Guzzardi in 1799 and throughout time the scars that were depicted originally were covered up by various owners. Continue reading “Portrait Analysis: Lord Horatio Nelson”

english history · european history · history

The Animals in the Tower: A Brief History of the Royal Menagerie

A few weeks ago, I stumbled upon a documentary of the Tower of London while watching television and, of course, it immediately peaked my interest. I have always been interested in the Tower’s history because so much has happened there in over 900 years of history. This includes some of the most dramatic events in English history as the Tower was used not only as royal residence, but as a prison and site of execution. Yet, the documentary went over a part of the Tower’s that I was unfamiliar with. One of the experts interviewed discussed how, during excavations of the now dried up moat, bones were found from a variety of exotic creatures. They had found leopards, many dogs, and even multiple lion skulls. These lion skulls were from Barbary Lions, whose species is now extinct! This proves that these lions were kept in the Tower during the medieval era. That just blew my mind and I proceeded to learn more…

The first lions came to the tower in February of 1235, when Henry III’s brother in law (Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire) gave him three lions. This began the royal menagerie where the privileged few could view the monarch’s glorious collection of exotic animals. These were usually the royal favorites and the employees of the Tower. In 1252, the collection expanded when King Haakon IV of Norway sent Henry III a polar bear (and a keeper to go along with it)! Though the menagerie was still restricted, the citizens of London could sometimes get a glimpse of this great beast as the polar bear fished for his own food in the Thames River! Continue reading “The Animals in the Tower: A Brief History of the Royal Menagerie”

biography · english history · european history · history

Lady Ada Lovelace: “Enchantress of Numbers”

While watching an episode of Victoria on Masterpiece PBS, we were introduced to a fascinating woman of science, Lady Ada Lovelace. Her character intrigued me so much because of how unique she was for the time that I went on to research her even more! I wanted to focus a blog post on her and it has been challenging. Much of the math/computer science that Ada works with is complicated and does go over my head. I got some helped and ended up learning more about computers than I had known before. I persevered with this blog post because I think she is one of the forgotten people of history who left an important legacy. Those interested in computer history may know her name, but I had never heard of her until that episode of Victoria.

Image result for ada lovelace

Lady Ada Lovelace is known for writing the first modern computer program in the 1840s. I was shocked when I first heard this statement because I ignorantly thought that there was no technology like a computer in the Victorian Era! When I think of that technology, I think of what we know in the modern day. In the Victorian era, there was not a computer in the modern sense, but there was the Difference Engine. The Difference Engine was created by Charles Babbage (who will play a large role in Ada’s story).  The Difference Engine was a remarkable new technology for the era and was essentially a calculator, but it was only able to compute one operation of mathematics. The Difference Engine was a very large machine that, instead of using circuits to solve the problems, it used actual physical pieces. Ada herself was fascinated by this machine. Continue reading “Lady Ada Lovelace: “Enchantress of Numbers””

Ancient History · english history · history

Boudica’s Quest for Vengeance Part 2

Part 1! Boudica’s Quest for Vengeance Part 1

As seen in my previous post, Boudica had surpassed all expectations. She shocked the ancient world by inspiring an army of thousands of Britons to finally take back what had been theirs originally. They were fighting against the abuses her people had faced for seventeen years at the hands of the Romans. Boudica and her warriors had burnt the great city of Camulodunum to the ground and decimated the ninth legion. Fear spread quickly across the the land, but Governor Paulinus was not about to be defeated…

Boudica’s next target was Londinium (modern day London), which (at the time) was a relatively new city. It was created to be a trading port with the continent and was mostly populated by traders, craftsmen, and wealthy citizens. Londinium was estimated to have a population of about 30,000. This wealthy city was ripe for looting and, unfortunately for the citizens, there was no military presence (especially with the ninth legion now inoperable). The second legion was called in to fight, yet they failed to arrive. The people of Londinium knew that they were ill prepared. Continue reading “Boudica’s Quest for Vengeance Part 2”

Ancient History · english history · history

Boudica’s Quest for Vengeance Part 1

This is a post (well now posts) I have been looking forward to creating for a while. It is the story of Boudica, the warrior queen, who led her army of Britons on to fight against their Roman oppressors in 60 AD. Not much is known about her personally, yet her legend lives on through books, shows, statues, art, etc. The name Boudica is easiest to understand as a Celtic version of Victoria, this meaning Victory. There is speculation whether this was truly her name, or a title given to her. Before I begin her tale, we must discuss some background knowledge of Romanized Britannia that will give context to the story. Also, note that most of the primary sources historians use are Roman writings of the events and archaeological evidence. There are no written sources from the Britons themselves. Continue reading “Boudica’s Quest for Vengeance Part 1”